Focus: In this unit, students investigate what causes changes in motion by exploring pushes and pulls. Students will then use prior knowledge and information gained from their observations during various tests to design a miniature golf course. Students explore concepts that include the following:

  • Pushes and pulls can have different strengths and directions.
  • Pushing and pulling on an object can change the speed or direction of its motion and can start or stop it.

Teacher Guide CoverStudents will explore these concepts with both visible and invisible pushes and pulls, and contact and non-contact forces. They will recognize that motion is affected by the strength and direction of pushes and pulls, the characteristics of objects, and the surface on which objects are moved. Students will learn how motion changes and develop an understanding that pushes and pulls of different types are the cause of all changes in movement.

Engineers and engineering designers use knowledge of forces and motion as they develop solutions to problems and make things that are useful to people. This series of lessons incorporates learning goals that support the principles and practices of engineering design, such as defining problems and evaluating and optimizing possible solutions.

Number of Lessons: 3, each lesson is divided into 3–5 lesson segments.

Instruction Time: We recommend that you plan for approximately 30–45 minutes for each lesson segment. We further recommend that you spend a minimum of sixteen days and a maximum of twenty-four days teaching the Pushes and Pulls unit so that you have time to teach the other units in the Grade K CKSci series.

Please note that a Pacing Guide template is provided in the Teacher Guide so teachers can map out customized instructional days for this unit.

Additional Search Terms:
cause • effect • touch • distance • speed • gravity • compare • test • improve • problem • solution • magnet • metal • opposite • record • prediction • nonfiction • informational text

CKSci Grade Levels: CKSci units are correlated to topics at the grade levels specified in the K–5 Core Knowledge Science Sequence.

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