The following article first appeared in “The 74” on February 19, 2020.

This is the second in a series of pieces from a Knowledge Matters Campaign tour of school districts in Tennessee. Sullivan County sits in the northeast corner of the state and is home to almost 9,200 students. The school system has received national attention for the progress it’s made using the Core Knowledge, a comprehensive English language arts curriculum that sequentially builds students’ knowledge of history and science topics as they are learning to read, beginning as early as kindergarten. After four years of strategic implementation, all 11 elementary schools in the district are using the program from kindergarten to the fifth grade. Knowledge Matters asked two principals, Alesia Dinsmore of Rock Springs Elementary and Angie Baker of Central Heights Elementary School — both of whom have been part of the curriculum’s rollout since inception, to share some of their lessons learned. Read an introduction to this series here and the remainder of the pieces in this series here.

Halfway through a unit on the westward expansion this year, a second-grade teacher in Rock Springs Elementary School was conducting a read-aloud of the Core Knowledge text Buffalo Hunters. She posed the question, “In what ways are the steamboat and the locomotive train similar?” One of our most behaviorally challenged students — a young boy who lives in extreme poverty and struggles mightily with anger — was eager to display his knowledge. “The train and the steamboat both run off coal or wood. Both have steam,” he said. “I am like the train. The train has to release steam. It’s like me. Sometimes I get really, really mad and I have to release steam. That helps me calm down or I would explode, just like the train.”

What this young boy demonstrated is the impact that rich and relatable texts can have — and the platform they can provide for the kinds of connections we want students to make. In the past, this classroom might well have been working on a skill like “cause and effect” with a text like Don’t Slam the Door (about the effects of the family dog letting the house door slam). With Buffalo Hunters, not only is the student far more engaged, but also this teacher has more meaningful content to explore, more advanced vocabulary to discuss and more interesting writing prompts to assign.

Over the past three years, our school system has moved from a “1” on the state’s TN Ready Assessment to a “4,” exceeding the state’s growth standard. The percentage of students requiring Tier 3 instruction — intensive intervention, versus general instruction in Tier 1 and moderate intervention in Tier 2 — in ELA has dramatically decreased. We’ve accomplished this with the largely free, downloadable version of the Core Knowledge Language Arts program, supplemented with grant dollars.

Our journey with CKLA has been transformative, helping us to act upon three core beliefs:

    1. Focusing on foundational skills (e.g., phonemic awareness and phonics) instruction;
    2. Ensuring that the questions we engage in with texts require higher-order thinking versus simple recall and memory;
    3. Passing on ownership to students for their work;

In our experience, it is rare to find teachers who don’t believe students can perform to high expectations. The problem is that they don’t know what to do about it; we have not given them an organized way of delivering on their core beliefs.

Over the past three years, Sullivan County Schools has put significant effort into professional learning about those three core actions that have greatly impacted instruction and, consequently, student learning. Those core actions have been instrumental in moving forward our district’s literacy improvement plan.

Prior to the implementation of CKLA, phonics instruction — including writing assignments that required mastery of sound-spelling patterns and sight words — was often isolated and brief. While teachers had a great deal of control over the way they used the block of time carved out for reading instruction, they had little understanding of the power and strength of strategic, explicit phonics instruction. It was rarely connected to any current unit of study and ranged in sophistication from merely sentence-copying to the more sophisticated construction of paragraphs on isolated topics.

Second-grader Anabele Fleenor plans her writing as part of the “Westward Expansion” unit. (Courtesy of Knowledge Matters Campaign)

Through our work with CKLA, our teachers have been given the requisite training to pass on the code-breaking tools of reading to their students. They’ve learned that while the English language has only 26 letters, these letters represent 44 different sounds (which they are taught how to correctly pronounce in isolation) and make up 150 different spelling patterns. What we have found is that when teachers provide foundational skills instruction that is explicit and systematic, all students have the opportunity to perform at mastery.

The kind of questioning that drives our inquiry of texts — the second core action — has also undergone a considerable shift. Prior to the implementation of CKLA, when we observed teachers, we noticed that questions were designed for a quick student response that didn’t set teachers up for follow-up questions, so they often accepted a weak response and moved on. Now our teachers plan. The curriculum sequences questions for them — questions that develop from the level of knowledge/recall to higher order. As a result, our students are understanding texts at a deeper level and engaging in far more complex thinking about what they’re reading, as indicated by the second-grader who independently likened himself to a steam engine.

We are really just getting started with this work and are now focusing ever more effort on the quality of student responses. In doing so, we are beginning to see students owning more rigorous thinking and articulating their own ideas. Student responses contain details from the text, and they confirm or refine their understandings through collaborative group interaction. Students are developing the ability to incorporate academic vocabulary, defend their response with text evidence and build on each other’s responses respectfully.

Putting the conditions in place where students can take this kind of ownership of their work is the third core action. Prior to the implementation of CKLA, teachers exposed students to texts that, frankly, were not especially rich in content, rigor or vocabulary. The texts they were reading were often written not so much to convey knowledge or mine themes as to teach strategies like “find the main idea” or “cause and effect” — which can be done just as easily with Don’t Slam the Door as it can with a story like Buffalo Hunters. It was difficult for students to make deep connections to these lower-level texts — to, in fact, have much interest in them. Even the read-alouds, presumably at a more advanced reading level, weren’t engaging our students.

But now they are learning about the War of 1812, Greek mythology and westward expansion. They understand the importance of these topics, which are extensions of ones they learned the year before and are the building blocks to other important topics they’ll learn in the years ahead. They are invested in learning because the topics are interesting to them.

Once again, we want to underscore that this ownership applies to all students in our buildings.

Here’s another recent scene from a second-grade class. The teacher is reading Prometheus and asks her students, “Was the punishment Zeus gave Prometheus fair?” A student responds, “Well, it seems fair to Prometheus, but what about the bird? If the bird comes back every day to eat liver because it grows back daily, would it be a punishment or not? I like steak, but if I had to eat it every day, it might not be a treat anymore. And what about his freedom? He has to be there every day to eat the liver. But, what do you think?” We are all so proud that this young man, who is one of the poorer children in our school and also has special needs, is able to participate in the classroom discussion alongside his peers, making profound contributions to work of the group.

Mrs. Anderson’s fourth- and fifth-grade social studies students describe the weaknesses in the Articles of Federation. (Courtesy of Knowledge Matters Campaign)

One of the most exciting things for our school community, and for visitors like those who came to see us as part of the Knowledge Matters school tour, is that when you enter our CKLA classrooms, you can’t tell which students might be living in poverty (60 percent), are receiving special education (18 percent) or are homeless (2 percent); you can’t distinguish which are from low or high socioeconomic groups, which have stable or dysfunctional family situations. They are all engaged. They are all responsive. They are all on a level playing field for success.

In Sullivan County, we are learning that their core beliefs about what is possible instructionally need to be backed by core actions — and that those actions need to be supported by strong curriculum and practiced daily. We are thrilled about where this journey is taking our staff and our students.

Alesia Dinsmore is principal of Rock Springs Elementary School in Sullivan County, Tennessee.

Angie Baker is principal of Central Heights Elementary School in Sullivan County, Tennessee.

8 comments on “Curriculum Case Study: How an English Language Arts Program Is Leveling the Playing Field in Classrooms Where the Majority of Students Live in Poverty”

  1. 1
    Samuel Adewumi on March 3, 2020

    Are your readings and texts inclusive of the contributions of all people, are they culturally relevant?

  2. 2
    Maureen Spratley-Longo on March 3, 2020

    Reading this article brings tears to my eyes. This rich curriculum has ALL students engaged regardless of economic poverty and disabilities. I became familiar with Core Knowledge after the introduction of new learning standards. For the life of me, why aren’t more school districts using it? As a retired teacher, this resistance also brings tears to my eyes.

  3. 3
    K Wilmoth on March 17, 2020

    Thank you for sharing. I am very intrigued by CKLA. I am a teacher in California and we use the Benchmark Advance Curriculum. One of the biggest complaints from our teachers is that it lacks strong foundational skills. I teach kindergarten, which is the basis of foundational skills, and I feel that I need to supplement their curriculum. I also teach in a low-socioeconomic school. Seventy-five percent of our students qualify for free and reduced lunch and fifty percent are second language learners. We use sound spelling cards for phonics and I would love to see a lesson as to how you teach the different sound-spellings. Does this begin in kindergarten? I also appreciate the depth of knowledge questioning. We have been practicing improving our questioning, and I like how the CKLA curriculum embeds the questioning in the curriculum. Your results are fantastic and I loved hearing the student responses to questions!

    1. 4
      Christina Erland on March 25, 2020

      Thank you for your post! In CKLA, explicit teaching of sound-spellings begins in Kindergarten. Here’s a brief demonstration of how the Skills strand introduces the /m/ sound, spelled ‘m’ ( You can also review this lesson here:

      Students are asked to respond to a variety of questions (i.e., literal, inferential, and evaluative). I would encourage you to review the “discussion” portion of the Listening and Learning Domain Anthology lessons via this link:

      Please feel free to contact us ( with any questions.

  4. 5
    Stephanie B. on March 27, 2020

    I love that your school district introduced this curriculum and has stuck with it for a number of years. Time and time again, school districts introduce innovative programs and expect for there to be a complete turnaround within one school year; this is not realistic. Giving teachers the tools needed to effectively implement a new curriculum, allowing ample time for students and teachers to get acclimated to the curriculum, and understanding that change takes time is necessary when the goal is significant change and growth. I have found that a lot of my students are not familiar with routines and tend to struggle because of this. As a special educator, it is important that students are encouraged and made to feel like they can achieve more than they think regardless of their economic status, race, achievement level etc. Students should be able to express themselves and should also have a curriculum that incorporates concepts that they can relate to.

  5. 6
    Allison Johnson on September 24, 2020

    Students are truly capable of amazing things when they are afforded the appropriate tools and environments for success. The rigor and depths knowledge that students of such young ages are able to explore through the CKLA implementation is commendable. As a Title I teacher within a diverse learning community, it’s crucial that my students have the opportunities to be appropriately challenged and supported with rich content and meaningful learning experiences. Starting connections to concepts and content that students will revisit will not only create more impactful learning for students throughout their academic lives but will allow them to draw personal meaning from said content and continue to build on that knowledge in the future. I am intrigued by the goal of improving the quality of student responses, for this is a heavy focus in the writing and responses of my fifth-grade students. In a virtual environment, as is many teachers’ current reality, how would you suggest adjusting CKLA implementation to meet the needs of at-home learners and continue to ensure that students are experiencing the same levels of rigor online?

  6. 7
    Allison Johnson on September 27, 2020

    All students have the ability to thrive in a learning environment when provided with the appropriate tools to unlock success. I truly admire the initiatives CKLA has taken to allow students to unlock new knowledge with engaging, enriching material that will reappear throughout each students’ academic experience. When students are able to take ownership of their thinking and learning, it’s theirs for life and can take them on paths leading to brighter futures. As a Title I elementary school teacher, I am always looking for ways in which I can engage my students in meaningful learning using enriching resources, improve the quality of their responses to reflect higher-order thinking, and to be able to share their learning in a way that appropriately challenges each learner, no matter their socioeconomic status.

    The in-person strategies and resources shared through CKLA implementation are inspiring and I look forward to advocating for such programs in my learning community. As many school systems are currently engaged in virtual learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic, are there successful strategies and suggestions for implementing this program in a virtual setting?

  7. 8
    Beverley A Pierre-Louis on September 21, 2021

    I enjoyed how the little boy made a connection between the steamboat and train. For the most part I think the CKLA is engaging to learners. However, I agree with Samuel statement “Readings and texts inclusive of the contributions of all people, are they culturally relevant?”

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